From Bible Encyclopedia
Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh. Because of its original meaning as a song or chant, the word psalm can be used to mean any religious chant or poem of praise. This article, however, deals specifically with the Psalms (with upper-case P) as the book of Scripture.
In the Hebrew Bible, the Psalms are counted among the "Writings" or Ketuvim (one of the three main sections into which the books are grouped).
Composition of the Book of Psalms
The Book of Psalms is divided into 150 Psalms, each of which constitutes a religious song or chant, though one or two are long and may constitute a set of related chants. When the Bible was divided into chapters, each Psalm was assigned its own chapter. Psalms are sometimes referred to as chapters, though their individuality antedates the chapter assignments by at least 1,500 years.
The Dead Sea Scrolls contain more than 150 Psalms, including the "canonical" 150 Psalms and several "non-canonical" Psalms.
|Hebrew Psalms||Greek Psalms|
- Psalms 9 and 10 in the Hebrew are together as Psalm 9 in the Greek
- Psalms 114 and 115 in the Hebrew are Psalm 113 in the Greek
- Psalms 114 and 115 in the Greek appear as Psalm 116 in the Hebrew
- Psalms 146 and 147 in the Greek form Psalm 147 in the Hebrew
Christian traditions vary:
- Protestant translations are based on the Hebrew numbering;
- Eastern Orthodox translations are based on the Greek numbering;
- Roman Catholic official liturgical texts follow the Greek numbering, but modern Catholic translations often use the Hebrew numbering, sometimes adding, in parenthesis, the Greek numbering as well.
Most manuscripts of the Septuagint also include a Psalm 151, present in Eastern Orthodox translations; a Hebrew version of this poem was found in the Psalms Scroll of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Psalms Scroll presents the Psalms in an order different from that found elsewhere, and also contains a number of non-canonical poems and hymns.
For the remainder of this article, the Hebrew Psalm numbers will be used unless otherwise noted.
Authorship and ascriptions
Jewish tradition maintains that the Psalms are the work of David, basing himself on the writings of ten ancient psalmists (including Adam and Moses). Most Psalms are prefixed with introductory words (which are frequently different in the Masoretic and Septuagint traditions) ascribing them to a particular author or saying something about the circumstances of their composition; only 73 of these introductions claim David as author. Since the Psalms were not written down in Hebrew before the 6th century BC, nearly half a millennium after David's reign (about 1000 BC), they doubtless depended on oral tradition for transmission of any Davidic material.
Psalms 39, 62, and 77 are linked with Jeduthun, to be sung after his manner or in his choir. Psalms 50 and 73-83 are associated with Asaph, as the master of his choir, to be sung in the worship of God. The ascriptions of Psalms 42, 44-49, 84, 85, 87, and 88 assert that the "sons of Korah" were entrusted with arranging and singing them; 2 Chronicles 20:19 suggests that this group formed a leading part of the Korathite singers.
Psalm 18 is found, with minor variations, also at 2 Samuel 22, for which reason, in accordance with the naming convention used elsewhere in the historic parts of the Bible, it is known as the Song of David.
Sections of the book
In Jewish usage, the Psalter is divided, after the analogy of the Pentateuch, into five books, each closing with a doxology or benediction (For the Orthodox Christian division into twenty kathismata, see Eastern Orthodox usage, below):
- The first book comprises the first 41 Psalms. All of these are ascribed to David except Psalms 1, 2, 10, and 33, which, though untitled in the Hebrew, were also traditionally ascribed to David. While Davidic authorship cannot be confirmed, this probably is the oldest section of the Psalms.
- The second book consists of the next 31 Psalms (42-72). Eighteen of these are ascribed to David. Psalm 72 begins "For Solomon", but is traditionally understood as being written by David as a prayer for his son. The rest are anonymous.
- The third book contains seventeen Psalms (73-89), of which Psalm 86 is ascribed to David, Psalm 88 to Heman the Ezrahite, and Psalm 89 to Ethan the Ezrahite.
- The fourth book also contains seventeen Psalms (90-106), of which Psalm 90 is ascribed to Moses, and Psalms 101 and 103 to David.
- The fifth book contains the remaining Psalms, 44 in number. Of these, 15 are ascribed to David, one (Psalm 127) as a charge to Solomon.
Psalm 136 is generally called "the great Hallel." But the Talmud includes also Psalms 120-135. Psalms 113-118, inclusive, constitute the "Hallel" recited at the three great feasts (Passover, Weeks, and Tabernacles), at the new moon, and on the eight days of Hanukkah. A version of Psalm 136 with slightly different wording appears in the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Psalms 120-134 are referred to as Songs of Degrees, and are thought to have been used as hymns of approach by pilgrims.
Psalm 119 is the longest Psalm. It is composed of 176 verses, in sets of eight verses, each set beginning with one of the 22 Hebrew letters. Several other Psalms too have alphabetical arrangements.
Psalm 117 is the shortest Psalm, containing but two verses.
Scholars have determined that there are a groups of psalms that can be classified together because of similarities. The main forms are:
- Individual Laments
- Community Laments
- Songs of Trust
- Individual Thanksgiving Psalms
- Royal Psalms
- Wisdom Psalms
Use of the Psalms in Jewish ritual
In the Pentateuch (or Torah), Moses leads the Jews in two songs of praise: upon the splitting of the Red Sea (Exodus 15) and before his death (Deuteronomy 32). Also, the Jews sing upon miracles done for them with the well (Numbers 21). Other Jewish figures would sing songs to celebrate miracles, including Joshua and Deborah. It is David, though, who is known as the "sweet singer of Israel".
Some of the titles given to the Psalms in their ascriptions suggest their use in worship:
- Some bear the Hebrew designation shir (Greek ode, a song). Thirteen have this title. It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight line or in a regular strain. This title includes secular as well as sacred song.
- Fifty-eight Psalms bear the designation (Hebrew) mizmor (Greek psalmos, a Psalm), a lyric ode, or a song set to music; a sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument.
- Psalm 145, and many others, have the designation (Hebrew) tehillah (Greek hymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God.
- Six Psalms (16, 56-60) have the title (Hebrew) michtam.
- Psalms 7 and Habakkuk 3 bear the title (Hebrew) shiggaion.
Psalms are used throughout traditional Jewish worship. Several Psalms appear as part of the morning services; Psalm 145 (commonly referred to as "Ashrei," which is really the first word of each of the last 2 verses of Psalm 144), is read during or before services, three times every day. Psalms 95-99, 29, 92, and 93, along with some later readings, comprise the introduction ("Kabbalat Shabbat") to the Friday night service.
Traditionally, a different "Psalm for the Day" is read after the morning service each day of the week (starting Sunday, Psalms: 24, 48, 82, 94, 81, 93, 92). This is described in the Mishnah (the initial codification of the Jewish oral tradition) in the section "Tamid."
When a Jew dies, a watch is kept over the body and Tehillim (Psalms) are recited constantly by sun or candlight, until the burial service. Historically, this watch would be carried out by the immediate family – usually in shifts – but what usually happens today is that the funeral home or Chevra kadisha will offer someone to keep this vigil.
Many Jews complete the Book of Psalms on a weekly or monthly basis, and say, each week, a Psalm connected to that week's events or the Torah portion read during that week. In addition, many Jews (notably Lubavitch, and other Chasidim) read the entire Book of Psalms prior to the morning (Shachrit) service, on the Sabbath preceding the calculated appearance of the new moon.
The Psalms in Christian worship
New Testament references show that the earliest Christians used the Psalms in worship, and the Psalms have remained an important part of worship in virtually all Christian Churches. The Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches have always made systematic use of the Psalms, with a cycle for the recitation of all or most of them over the course of one or more weeks. In the early centuries of the Church, it was expected that any candidate for bishop would be able to recite the entire Psalter from memory, something they often learned automatically during their time as monks. Today, new translations and settings of the Psalms continue to be produced. Several conservative denominations sing only the Psalms (and the small number of hymns found elsewhere in the Bible) in worship, and do not accept the use of any non-Biblical hymns; an example is the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America.
Some Psalms are among the best-known and best-loved passages of Scripture, with a popularity extending well beyond regular church-goers. In particular, the 23rd Psalm ("The Lord is My Shepherd", 22nd in the Greek numbering) offers an immediately appealing message of comfort and is widely chosen for church funeral services, either as a reading or in one of several popular hymn settings; and Psalm 50/51 ("Have mercy on me O God", called the Miserere from the first word in its Latin version) is by far the most sung Psalm of Orthodoxy, in both Divine Liturgy and Hours, in the sacrament of repentance or confession, and in other settings. Psalm 102/103 ("Bless the Lord, O my soul; and all that is within me, bless his holy name!") is one of the best-known prayers of praise. Psalm 137/136 ("By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept") is a moody, yet eventually triumphant, meditation upon living in slavery, and has been used in at least one spiritual, as well as one well-known reggae song; the Orthodox church often uses this hymn during Lent. In popular music, the U2 song "40" is based on Psalm 40 ("I waited patiently for the Lord; and he inclined unto me, and heard my cry.")
Eastern Orthodox usage
Eastern Orthodox Christians have long made the Psalms an integral part of their corporate and private prayers. To facilitate its reading, the 150 Psalms are divided into 20 kathismata, and each kathisma is further subdivided into three stasi (sing. stasis) as follows (using the Greek chapter numbering):
- Kathisma 1: Psalms 1-3, 4-6, 7-8
- Kathisma 2: 9-10, 11-13, 14-16
- Kathisma 3: 17, 18-20, 21-23
- Kathisma 4: 24-26, 27-29, 30-31
- Kathisma 5: 32-33, 34-35, 36
- Kathisma 6: 37-39, 40-42, 43-45
- Kathisma 7: 40-48, 49-50, 51-54
- Kathisma 8: 55-57, 58-60, 61-63
- Kathisma 9: 64-66, 67, 68-69
- Kathisma 10: 70-71, 72-73, 74-76
- Kathisma 11: 77, 78-80, 81-84
- Kathisma 12: 85-87, 88, 89-90
- Kathisma 13: 91-93, 94-96, 97-100
- Kathisma 14: 101-102, 103, 104
- Kathisma 15: 105, 106, 107-108
- Kathisma 16: 109-111, 112-114, 115-117
- Kathisma 17: 118:1-72, 73-131, 132-176
- Kathisma 18: 119-123, 124-128, 129-133
- Kathisma 19: 134-136, 137-139, 140-142
- Kathisma 20: 143-144, 145-147, 148-150
At vespers, different kathismata are read at different times of the liturgical year and on different days of the week within the same part of the year, according to the Church's calendar. In the 20th century, some lay Christians have adopted a continuous reading of the Psalms on weekdays, praying the whole book in four weeks, three times a day, one kathisma a day.
Aside from kathisma readings, Psalms occupy a prominent place in every other Orthodox service including the services of the Hours and the Divine Liturgy. In particular, the penitential Psalm 50 is very widely used. Fragments of Psalms and individual verses are used as Prokimena, or introductions to other Scripture readings. The bulk of Vespers is composed of Psalms even if the kathismata are disregarded; Psalm 118, "The Psalm of the Law," is the centerpiece of Matins. The entire book of Psalms is traditionally read out loud or chanted at the side of the deceased during the time leading up to the funeral.
Roman Catholic usage
The Psalms have always been an important part of Roman Catholic liturgy. The Liturgy of the Hours is centred on chanting or recitation of the Psalms, using fixed melodic formulas known as psalm tones. Early Catholics employed the Psalms widely in their individual prayers also; however, as knowledge of Latin (the language of the Latin rite) became uncommon, this practice ceased among the unlearned. Over the centuries, the use of the Psalms in the liturgy declined as well. The Tridentine Mass preserved only isolated verses that, in some cases, were originally refrains sung during recitation of the whole Psalm from which they were taken.
When the Second Vatican Council permitted the use of vernacular languages in the liturgy, certain Psalms again became well known even to the laity. Until the Council the Psalms were either recited on a one week or less frequently (as in the case of Ambrosian rite) a two-week cycle. The Breviary introduced in 1974 distributed the psalms over a four-week cycle. Monastic usage varies widely. Some use the four week cycle of the secular clergy, many retain a one week cycle, either following St Benedict's scheme or another of their own devising, while others opt for some other arrangement.
The 1970 revision of the Roman Missal (see Mass of Paul VI) reintroduced the singing or recitation of a more substantial section of a Psalm, and in some cases an entire Psalm, after the first Reading from Scripture. This Psalm, called the Responsorial Psalm, is usually sung or recited responsorially, although the General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 61 permits direct recitation.
The General Instruction of the Liturgy of the Hours, 122 sanctions three modes of singing/recitation for the Psalms:
- directly (all sing or recite the entire psalm);
- antiphonally (two choirs or sections of the congregation sing or recite alternate verses or strophes); and
- responsorially (the cantor or choir sings or recites the verses while the congregation sings or recites a given response after each verse).
The psalms were extremely popular among those who followed the Reformed tradition.
Following the Protestant Reformation, verse paraphrases of many of the Psalms were set as hymn]s. These were particularly popular in the Calvinist tradition. Calvin himself made some French translations of the Psalms for church usage. Martin Luther's A Mighty Fortress is Our God is based on Psalm 46. Among famous hymn settings of the Psalter were the Scottish Psalter and the settings by Isaac Watts. The first book printed in North America was a collection of Psalm settings, the Bay Psalm Book (1640).
But by the 20th century they were mostly replaced by hymns in church services.
Anglican chant is a way of singing the Psalms that remains part of the Anglican choral tradition. The version of the Psalter in the Book of Common Prayer is an older translation (from the Great Bible) than that included in the King James Version of the Bible.
Psalms set to Music
- Old 100th
- Miserere by Gregorio Allegri
- Miserere by Henryk Mikołaj Górecki
- Vespro della Beata Vergine 1610 by Monteverdi
- Symphony of Psalms by Igor Stravinsky
- Chichester Psalms by Leonard Bernstein
- Tehillim by Steve Reich
The psalms are the production of various authors. “Only a portion of the Book of Psalms claims David as its author. Other inspired poets in successive generations added now one now another contribution to the sacred collection, and thus in the wisdom of Providence it more completely reflects every phase of human emotion and circumstances than it otherwise could.” But it is specially to David and his contemporaries that we owe this precious book. In the “titles” of the psalms, the genuineness of which there is no sufficient reason to doubt, 73 are ascribed to David. Peter and John (Acts 4:25) ascribe to him also the second psalm, which is one of the 48 that are anonymous. About two-thirds of the whole collection have been ascribed to David.
Psalm 39:1-13, Psalms 62:1-12, and 77 are addressed to Jeduthun, to be sung after his manner or in his choir. Psalms 50 and 73 - 83 are addressed to Asaph, as the master of his choir, to be sung in the worship of God. The “sons of Korah,” who formed a leading part of the Kohathite singers (2 Chronicles 20:19), were entrusted with the arranging and singing of Psalm 42:1-11, 44 - 49, Psalm 84:1-12, Psalm 85:1-13, Psalms 87:1-7, and 88.
None of the psalms can be proved to have been of a later date than the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, hence the whole collection extends over a period of about 1,000 years. There are in the New Testament 116 direct quotations from the Psalter.
The Psalter is divided, after the analogy of the Pentateuch, into five books, each closing with a doxology or benediction:,
(1) The first book comprises the first 41 psalms, all of which are ascribed to David except Psalm 1:1-6, Psalm 2:1-12, 10, and 33, which, though anonymous, may also be ascribed to him.
(4) The fourth book also contains 17 psalms (Psalms 90 - 106), of which Psalm 90 is ascribed to Moses, and Psalms 101:1-8 and 103 to David.
Psalms 136 is generally called “the great hallel.” But the Talmud includes also Psalms 120 - 135. Psalms 113 - 118, inclusive, constitute the “hallel” recited at the three great feasts, at the new moon, and on the eight days of the feast of dedication.
“It is presumed that these several collections were made at times of high religious life: the first, probably, near the close of David's life; the second in the days of Solomon; the third by the singers of Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 20:19); the fourth by the men of Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 29, 30, 31); and the fifth in the days of Ezra.”
The Mosaic ritual makes no provision for the service of song in the worship of God. David first taught the Church to sing the praises of the Lord. He first introduced into the ritual of the tabernacle music and song.
Diverse names are given to the psalms.
(1) Some bear the Hebrew designation shir (Gr. ode, a song). Thirteen have this title. It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight line or in a regular strain. This title includes secular as well as sacred song.
(2) Fifty-eight psalms bear the designation (Heb.) mitsmor (Gr. psalmos, a psalm), a lyric ode, or a song set to music; a sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument.
(3) Psalm 145, and many others, have the designation (Heb.) tehillah (Gr. hymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God.
(4) Six psalms (Psalms 16:1-11, 56 - 60) have the title (Heb.) michtam (q.v.).
(5) Psalm 7 and Habakkuk 3 bear the title (Heb.) shiggaion (q.v.).