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Shallum (1)

shal´um (שׁלּוּם, shallūm, שׁלּם, shallum, "retribution"; various forms in the Septuagint):

This is the name of not less than 12 Hebrew persons:

(1) The youngest son of Naphtali (1 Chronicles 7:13). He is also called “Shillem” in Genesis 46:24; Numbers 26:49.

(2) A descendant of Simeon, the son of Shaul and the father of Mibsam (1 Chronicles 4:25). He lived in 1618 BC.

(3) The son of Sismai “son” of Sheshan of the tribe of Judah (1 Chronicles 2:40, 1 Chronicles 2:41). He lived in 1300 BC.

(4) A keeper of the gate in the reign of David. He was a son of Kore, a porter of the sanctuary during the reign of David (1 Chronicles 9:17, 1 Chronicles 9:19, 1 Chronicles 9:31; Ezra 2:42; Nehemiah 7:45). The name is also written “Meshullam” in Nehemiah 12:25, “Salum” in 1 Esdras 5:28, “Meshelemiah” in 1 Chronicles 26:1, 1 Chronicles 26:2, 1 Chronicles 26:9, and “Shelemiah” in 1 Chronicles 26:14. He lived about 1050 BC.

(5) A son of Zadok and father of Hilkiah, a high priest and ancestor of Ezra the scribe (1 Chronicles 6:12, 1 Chronicles 6:13; Ezra 7:2). In the works of Josephus he is called “Sallumus”; in 1 Esdras 8:1, “Salem,” and in 2 Esdras 1:1, “Salemas.”

(6) The 15th king of Israel. See following article Shallum (2).

(7) A son of Bani, a priest who had taken a heathen wife and was compelled by Ezra the scribe to put her away (Ezra 10:42; omitted in 1 Esdras 9:34).

(8) The father of Jehizkiah, an Ephraimite chief in the time of Ahaz king of Israel (2 Chronicles 28:12).

(9) Keeper of the temple vestments in the reign of Josiah (2 Kings 22:14). He was the husband of the prophetess Huldah (2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chronicles 34:22). He was the keeper of the sacred wardrobe and was probably the uncle of Jeremiah the prophet (Jeremiah 32:7; compare Jeremiah 35:4).

(10) King of Judah and a son of king Josiah (1 Chronicles 3:15; Jeremiah 22:11), better known by the name Jehoahaz II. This name he received when he ascended the throne of the kingdom of Judah (2 Chronicles 36:1). He was elected to succeed his father on the throne, although he was two years younger than his brother Eliakim. He assumed the crown under the name of Jehoahaz (q.v.). He did not imitate the example of his father (2 Kings 23:32), but was “a young lion, and it learned to catch the prey; it devoured men” (Ezekiel 19:3). His policy was anti-Egyptian therefore. Necho, at that time at Riblah, sent an army against Jerusalem, which at once yielded, and Jehoahaz was carried captive to the Egyptian camp, Eliakim being appointed king in his stead. He remained a captive in Egypt till his death, and was the first king of Judah that died in exile.

(11) A Levite who was a porter at the time of Ezra (Ezra 10:24; “Sallumus” in 1 Esdras 9:25).

(12) A ruler over a part of Jerusalem and a son of Hallohesh. He with his daughters aided in building the walls of Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah (Nehemiah 3:12).

Shallum (2)

(שׁלּוּם, shallūm, שׁלּם, shallum, “the requited one” (2 Kings 15:10-15)):

The son of Jabesh, otherwise unknown. He “conspired against Zachariah, and smote him before the people, and slew him, and reigned in his stead” (2 Kings 15:10). He reigned only “a month of days in Samaria” (2 Kings 15:13, marg.). Menahem rose up against Shallum and put him to death (2 Kings 15:14, 2 Kings 15:15, 2 Kings 15:17), and became king in his stead.

He was the 15th king of Israel, and successor of Zechariah, whom he publicly assassinated in the 7th month of his reign. Nothing more is known of Shallum than that he was a son of Jabesh, which may indicate that he was a Gileadite from beyond Jordan. He is said to have made “a conspiracy” against Zechariah, so was not alone in his crime. The conspirators, however, had but a short-lived success, as, when Shallum had “reigned for the space of a month in Samaria,” Menahem, then at Tirzah, one of the minor capitals of the kingdom, went up to Samaria, slew him and took his place.

It was probably at this time that Syria threw off the yoke of tribute to Israel (see Jeroboam II), as when next we meet with that kingdom, it is under its own king and in alliance with Samaria (2 Kings 16:5).

The 10 years of rule given to Menahem (2 Kings 15:17) may be taken to include the few months of military violence under Zechariah and Shallum, and cover the full years 758-750, with portions of years before and after counted as whole ones. The unsuccessful usurpation of Shallum may therefore be put in 758 BC (some date lower).

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